Surgical Laparoscopic Tubal Ligation
Surgical sterilization must be considered permanent and irreversible. Laparoscopic Tubal Ligation is performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. A small incision (5mm) is made in the umbilicus and another small incision is made above the pubic bone. Gas is insufflated into the abdomen and small plastic tubes, or trochars, are introduced into the abdominal cavity. A small camera, or laparoscope, is introduced into the abdomen. Through the lower port, a device called a Kleppinger Cautery device, is used to grasp and burn the middle portion of the fallopian tubes. After the tubes are cauterized, laparoscopic scissors are used to transect the fallopian tubes so that recanalization of the fallopian tubes is less likely. There is a 1/500 risk of failure of a laparoscopic tubal ligation.
Major complications, which are rare in female sterilization, include: infection, hemorrhage, and problems associated with the use of general anesthesia. It is estimated that major complications occur in 1.7 percent of the cases, while the overall complication rate has been reported to be between 0.1% and 15.3%.
Although there has been some success in reopening the fallopian tubes, the success rate is low, and sterilization should be considered irreversible.